27th Dynasty

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King Cambyses of Persia conquered Egypt in 525 BC and was acknowledged as pharaoh. He attempted to conquer Kush, but failed, as did an expedition to Siwa Oasis. In 522, Cambyses returned to Asia and died en route. His successor, Darius I, restored a number of measures introduced by Cambyses which were not very favourable for Egypt or its temples. In about 510 BC he initiated the building of the temple of Hibis to Amun in Kharga Oasis. In 486 BC, various Egyptian and Libyan princes vainly tried to conquer Memphis from the western Delta, but Xerxes I, Darius' successor, crushed the rebellion. Under his son, Ataxerxes, Egypt rebelled again, causing Persia to briefly lose control over the Delta while still holding onto power in Upper Egypt. Although Ataxerxes was eventually successful, the region of Mareotis, where Alexandria would later be built, remained under Libyan control. Under his successors Darius II and Ataxerxes II, Egypt remained unsettled. Eventually this led to a new Egyptian uprising led by Amyrtaios and the founding of the 28th Dynasty. The Greek historian Herodotus visited Egypt during the reign of Ataxerxes I.