5th Dynasty

5th Dynasty.jpg

The best known rulers from this dynasty were Userkaf, Sahure, Neferirkare, Nyuserre, Djedkare and Unas, in order of succession. These kings had a special link with the cult of the sun god Re. Several of them built sun temples at Abu Ghurab and Abu Sir, where their pyramids are also located. In Abu Sir the oldest known inscribed papyri have also been found, connected with the mortuary cult of Neferirkare. An important political development for Egypt was the fact that important offices, such as that of vizier, were no longer filled by relatives of the king but by officials. These officials were rewarded with land, initially only the usufruct. Because the offices later became hereditary, the lands gradually came into private hands and a stratum of landowners was created which gradually became independent. An important fact from a religious point of view is that Unas was the first to have the Pyramid Texts inscribed in his tomb at Saqqara.